Cyber security is a worldwide concern. Our systems, infrastructure, and indeed our society rely on it. Many places study the security of systems in general, of software, and of the policies and procedures supporting them. But the security and assurance of hardware is much less studied. As our infrastructure and systems rely on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment, the security and assurance of hardware is integral to our systems, infrastructure, and society. Hardware security arises in a number of places.